Huawei 5G News
Huawei and China Mobile may look to the stars for 6G
By Harry Baldock, Total Telecom
Friday 30 April, 2021
According to a report, the two Chinese companies have plans to launch a pair of 6G test satellites later this year
While 5G is undoubtedly the major focus for almost all mobile operators and related equipment vendors around the world today – and surely will be for many years to come – numerous companies are nonetheless looking to get a head-start in 6G.
According to a report from the Global Times, Huawei and China Mobile are set to launch a pair of satellites in July this year with the aims of testing burgeoning 6G technologies. In the past, Huawei has said that it would need to launch around 10,000 small satellites to provide 6G services worldwide.
Exactly what these tests may entail remains a mystery, but the use of satellites for 6G seems natural enough. 6G will use higher frequencies even higher than those of mmWave 5G in order to convey data at speeds several times faster than its technological predecessor, going beyond 100 Gbps.
However, terahertz frequencies will struggle to travel long distances or penetrate obstacles, with even water in the Earth’s atmosphere a strong absorber of this type of radiation. As a result, this could limit the range of terrestrial 6G deployments, with satellites suggested as a reasonable alternative, though they too are not without their own challenges.
In fact, this is not the first time China will have seen the launch of satellites related to the future of mobile technology. In November 2020, China launched what it called the first 6G satellite in the world, Tianyan-5, co-developed by Chengdu Guoxing Aerospace Technology, and Beijing Weina Xingkong Technology, aiming to test high-frequency terahertz communications technology.
Of course, what exactly 6G is has yet to be properly defined. In the past year, numerous companies have demonstrated their interest in leading the way with the new technology and the process of defining exactly how it should work. Samsung, for example, has suggested research into the new technology is advancing at such a rapid pace that commercialisation of 6G could come as early as 2028.
Naturally, there is a geopolitical element to this move too. Telecommunications are becoming increasingly politicised in the modern world, becoming a battlefield for tech supremacy and global influence. China has already demonstrated its interest in being a world leader in 6G, as it arguably is in 5G, and other major players on the world stage are doing likewise.
Earlier this year, the European Commission announced that it was setting aside €900 million for 6G research and, just last month, the Next G Alliance, including AT&T, Ericsson, Nokia, and VMware, said they had begin work on a North American roadmap for 6G.
Currently, the industry estimates that 6G will mature around 2030, potentially enabling science-fiction-like experiences such as direct brain–computer interfacing and ‘teleportation of the senses’, making it possible for cyberspace to support human thought and action in real time through wearable devices and micro-devices mounted on the human body.
Who will be the first to make major strides in this embryonic technology remains to be seen.
Huawei claims to be involved in half of global 5G networks
By Juan Pedro Tomás
FEBRUARY 22, 2021 5G, APAC, Business, Carriers, EMEA, Network Infrastructure, Wireless
Chinese vendor Huawei claimed the company has built over half of the 140 commercial 5G networks deployed in 59 countries so far, Ryan Ding, president of Huawei’s Carrier Business Group, said at a pre-briefing for MWC Shanghai 2021.
“5G developed faster than we had expected. More than 140 commercial 5G networks have been deployed in 59 countries. In China, more than 68% of smartphones shipped in 2020 were 5G phones. More than 200 5G modules and industrial devices are now available, supporting 5G application in a broad range of industries,” the executive said.
“2020 has been a difficult year. During this time, Huawei worked closely with our customers,” Ding said. “In 2020, Huawei supported the stable operations of over 300 networks across more than 170 countries and helped operators provide online services and minimize the impact of the pandemic on their business. Working with Huawei, operators attracted 22 million new wireless home broadband users worldwide. Thanks to this, people can easily access telemedicine services and work from home,” he added.
The executive also highlighted that 5G technology is becoming part of core production processes in industries. Looking ahead, Ding is bullish about the outlook for industrial applications this year, noting adoption of 5G had made “production safer, more intelligent and more efficient” in domestic coal mining, steel making and manufacturing sectors.
Ding also noted that 5G applications have been deployed in more than 20 industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, education and logistics. ”5G is no longer for early adopters, it is improving our daily lives. 2021 will be the first year with large-scale 5G industry applications,” he said. “Huawei will have exhibitions and in-depth discussions on these topics with industry stakeholders online and offline at the upcoming MWC Shanghai. We will keep innovating to help our customers build the best 5G networks and achieve greater business success.”
During the briefing Ritchie Peng, president of Huawei’s 5G Product Line, said 5G users globally reached 200 million, while 800,000 5G sites have been rolled out worldwide.
Huawei’s founder and CEO, Ren Zhengfei recently said that the firm believes that it will be extremely unlikely that the new U.S. administration would lift the current restrictions imposed by former President Donald Trump.
“I think it’s very unlikely that the U.S. will remove us from the Entity List. I won’t say it’s impossible, but it’s extremely unlikely. We basically aren’t considering it a possibility,” Ren said, adding that Huawei remains committed to producing good products and solutions.
In May 2019, the U.S. Department of Commerce added Huawei to its Entity List, a decision that effectively banned the company from buying parts and components from U.S. companies without U.S. government approval.
Under the order, Huawei needs a U.S. government license to buy components from U.S. suppliers.
Huawei taps its 5G treasure trove
By Robyn Mak
Mar 17, 2021
ROYALTY STATUS. Huawei is playing its trump card. China’s telecommunications giant expects up to $1.3 billion in revenue between 2019 and 2021 from licensing intellectual property. It will charge a “reasonable” royalty capped at $2.50 for every smartphone that uses its next-generation wireless technology.
Huawei and its rivals historically exchanged access to each others’ patents. But U.S sanctions crippled the group’s smartphone and electronics unit, which generated $72 billion in sales in 2019. Meanwhile, governments from the European Union to India are shunning Chinese-made network equipment due to security concerns.
Huawei owns roughly a fifth of the essential 5G patents, according to research firm IPlytics. So its technology will probably be in most of the latest handsets. Rival Qualcomm reckons 5G smartphone shipments for 2020 and this year could total 775 million, implying up to $1.9 billion in handset royalties alone for Huawei. With ever more devices connecting to 5G, the company’s royalties could unveil a treasure trove.
Shenzhen, China China Telecom Shenzhen and Huawei have taken the lead in achieving the global ultra-large scale 3D networking that involves macro and pole base stations in China. With hundreds of 5G C-Band Book RRUs used, the deployment helps this operator deliver an undifferentiated experience in 5G-covered areas.
Book RRU is an innovative product that is small in size, lightweight, and easy to deploy. This offers an effective approach of addressing challenges associated with insufficient site resources. 5G Book RRUs enable significant improvements in 5G in-depth coverage and user experience in residential areas while increasing network capacity.
In-depth coverage in residential areas, urban villages, upscale communities, and backstreet alleys is a long-standing challenge which has faced operators. Insufficient resources and difficult acquisition lead to difficult and time-consuming site deployment.
Lightweight 5G Book RRUs enable quick 5G deployment in residential areas by using walls, lamp poles, monitoring poles, and electricity poles as sites. This offers a quick solution to achieving quick deployment, helping eliminate coverage holes and offload network traffic.
In December 2019, China Telecom Shenzhen completed the deployment and verification of the first 5G Book RRU. 4T4R 5G Book RRUs were used in the project.
After the recent 5G Book RRU deployment, tests show showed that the downlink speed exceeds 1.2Gbps on commercial mobile devices (Mate30 Pro) when the network spectrum is 100 MHz. With Book RRU deployment, coverage holes 150 to 200 m away from streets are eliminated and indoor in-depth coverage of low-rise buildings standing 50 m to 100 m above the ground is achieved.
This places the operator in a unique position to meet the capacity requirements in value hotspots in Shenzhen, such as school campuses, office buildings, business districts, and scenic parks. Book RRUs supplement macro base stations with in-depth coverage and hotspot capacity absorption. This improves user experience and releases suppressed traffic while also increasing ROI.
Shenzhen Telecom is the pioneer of digital construction. Under the overall construction plan of the new infrastructure construction China Telecom Shenzhen will continue to collaborate with Huawei to complete quick 3D networking based on 5G standalone (SA) technologies through combined deployment of macro, pole, and indoor products, enabling optimal user experience while securing 5G leadership.
The company’s subscribers using 5G-compatible smartphones will be able to connect to 5G Internet at speeds up to 1.5 Gbps, according to the company’s
March 10, 2021
Russian telecoms operator MTS on Wednesday launched the country’s first user pilot 5G network in the 4.9GHz band across 14 locations in Moscow using Chinese Huawei’s telecom equipment.
The company’s subscribers using 5G-compatible smartphones will be able to connect to 5G Internet at speeds up to 1.5 Gbps, according to the company’s press release.
However, users will not be able to independently connect to pilot zones, the company said and added that the selection of participants in the pilot project using smartphones with support for the n79 range will be carried out basis analysis of data in their movement, proximity to pilot locations, internet traffic, among others.
The Russian telco further said the number of 5G zones and consequently, the coverage will increase over time. But it did not specify further details.
It should be noted that, at the end of February, MTS together with Skoltech, expanded the 5G coverage in Skolkovo, deploying a pilot network for the International Medical Cluster (MMK).
At the first stage, the two companies will enable round-the-clock video surveillance over the 5G network while at the second stage, they will provide indoor 5G coverage.
With the latest development, MTS is piloting 5G at Nikolsky passage, Vetoshny lane; Lubyanskaya square, Bolshaya Lubyanka street, Central Children’s Store; Nikolskaya street, St. Regis Moscow Nikolskaya hotel; Bolshaya Dmitrovka street, Teatralny proezd, Kuznetsky Most, Central Department Store, Petrovsky Passage, among others.
Huawei open to transfer 5G technology for global innovation including source code
“We are open to transferring all of our 5G technologies, not just licensing production to others. This will include source programmes and source code to all the hardware design secrets as well as the know-how, and the chip design,” Huawei founder and CEO Ren Zhengfei said at the opening ceremony of the intelligent mining innovation lab in Taiyuan.
PTI February 11, 2021, 07:57 IST
NEW DELHI/BEIJING Chinese telecom major Huawei on Wednesday said that it is open to transfer 5G technology, including the source code, hardware design secrets etc to facilitate global innovation. Huawei holds the maximum number of patents for 5G technology and is followed by US chip maker Qualcomm, according to industry reports.
“We are open to transferring all of our 5G technologies, not just licensing production to others. This will include source programmes and source code to all the hardware design secrets as well as the know-how, and the chip design,” Huawei founder and CEO Ren Zhengfei said at the opening ceremony of the intelligent mining innovation lab in Taiyuan.
The United States, Australia, the UK and some European countries have barred Huawei equipment alleging security threat from them.
Calling for open trade policies, Zhengfei said, “Both the US and China need to develop their economies, as this is good for our society and financial balance. Everyone needs this. As humanity keeps making progress, no company can develop a globalized industry alone. It requires concerted efforts around the world.”
Indian government has also proposed telecom companies to keep source code, the main software that controls function of an equipment, in an escrow account for security purposes.
Huawei 5G adoption faster than expected in industrial processes
Reporter: PR Wire
Editor: PR Wire
Shenzhen, China (ANTARA) — In the lead-up to the Mobile World Congress (MWC) Shanghai 2021 from February 23 – 25, 2021 as scheduled, global ICT provider, Huawei said that it saw the 5G has progressed rapidly while some industries have started to adopt 5G in their core production processes.
“5G developed faster than we had expected. More than 140 commercial 5G networks have been deployed in 59 countries,” said Ryan Ding, Executive Director and President of Carrier Business Group Huawei at Huawei’s online media and analyst pre-briefing for the MWC Shanghai 2021.
According to Mr. Ding, Huawei worked closely with customers to navigate through difficult 2020 by supporting the stable operations of over 300 networks across more than 170 countries.
It also helped operators provide online services and minimize the impact of the pandemic on their business. Working with Huawei, operators attracted 22 million new wireless home broadband users worldwide.
“Thanks to this, people can easily access telemedicine services and work from home,” Mr Ding said. He also said the ecosystem is also maturing.
Mr. Ding continued, In China, more than 68% of smartphones shipped in 2020 were 5G phones. “More than 200 5G modules and industrial devices are now available, supporting 5G application in a broad range of industries,” Mr. Ding said.
Huawei helped operators build the best networks. According to the 2020 reports from third parties, including IHS, P3, OpenSignal and Meqyas, the best 5G networks in Seoul, Amsterdam,
Madrid, Zurich, Hong Kong and Riyadh were all the networks built by Huawei. Mr. Ding stressed that great network experience is the foundation of business success, and that these 6 cities are just a tip of the iceberg in terms of Huawei’s collaborative innovation with operators. For instance, by deploying Huawei’s 64T64R AAUs and leading multi-antenna algorithms, LG U+ achieved higher spectrum efficiency and network experience more than 25% better than other operators. With Huawei’s Blade AAU, which can operate in both Sub3G and C-Band, Sunrise shortened site acquisition time from 24 months to 6 months, and was only operator with 5 straight outstanding ratings in Switzerland.
Mr. Ding was optimistic about the prospect of large-scale deployment of 5G industrial applications in 2021 since 5G is becoming part of core production processes in industries.
5G applications have been deployed in more than 20 industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, education and logistics.
5G is no longer for early adopters, it is improving our daily lives. 2021 will be the first year with large-scale 5G industry applications. Operators will need new capabilities in network planning, deployment, maintenance, optimization, and operations, in order to achieve “0 to 1”, and replicate success from 1 to many. Huawei will have exhibitions and in-depth discussions on these topics with industry stakeholders online and offline at the upcoming MWC Shanghai.
We will keep innovating to help our customers build the best 5G networks and achieve greater business success,” Mr. Ding said.
He pointed to examples in China where 5G industrial applications are already proving their worth, such as in coal mining, steel making and manufacturing, where the adoption of 5G has made production safer, more intelligent, and more efficient.
Elsewhere, sharing similar optimism, Mr. Ritchie Peng, President of Huawei’s 5G Product Line, said the deployment of 5G is accelerating worldwide.
“The number of 5G users globally has reached 200 million, and 800,000 5G sites have been constructed worldwide. The overall user experience has been improved by more than tenfold, and entry-level 5G terminals are already available at a price as low as US$350,” Mr Ritchie said.
He attributed a number of factors driving the rapid growth of 5G networks across the industry chain, particularly to the sustained innovation by telecom carriers on services; device vendors on product forms and new applications; and system equipment vendors on systems, algorithms, and solutions; as well as industry customers on vertical applications.
Carriers outside China can quickly deploy 5G Massive MIMO at sites that do not have enough space for new antennas thanks partly to the success of China’s network to scaled deployment of Massive MIMO on TDD medium bands that provide a large bandwidth, through which 5G networks can provide huge capacity and ensure continuous coverage.
Huawei’s innovative 5G medium-band products and solutions are helping operators provide high-quality 5G network services, as shown in the third-party tests conducted in South Korea,
Germany, Austria, Saudi Arabia, and other countries and regions, during which even if carriers do not have an advantage in spectrum, their user experience still leads by10% to 50% with the same 5G devices.
Huawei tests 5G unmanned vehicle in Thailand smart hospital
By Bryan Rilloraza
Huawei, the Thailand National Broadcasting and Telecommunication Communication (NBTC) and Siriraj Hospital, recently initiated its “Unmanned Vehicle Pilot Project Driving Thai Healthcare to 5G Era” to pioneer the use of unmanned vehicles for the first time in a smart hospital in this ASEAN country.
The self-driving delivery vehicle takes advantage of 5G technology from Huawei to bring about contactless delivery solution of medical supplies, which will elevate the medical system to 5G era by applying world-class technology and innovation to drive medical services and the healthcare industry.
Such technology can replace manpower in logistics services as it can operate in complex environments. The autonomous car offers safe, convenient and cost-effective solutions while reducing workload for healthcare worker and improving patient safety. The 5G technology integration will then be progressively applied in the national health system for Smart Hospital transformation in near future.
“The NBTC has been utilizing 5G technology with remote medical services by connecting with Community Health Promotion Hospital and large local hospitals in piloting remote treatment of four diseases – such as eye diseases, skin diseases, blood pressure abnormalities and diabetes. Moreover, the remote medical care has also expanded to local prisons, namely Khao Bin Central Prison and Ratchaburi Central Prison in Ratchaburi province, to give easier medical access to people and prisoners in remote areas. The ongoing projects by the NBTC aim to drive greater benefits of 5G innovation into different aspects of life across the country,” said Takorn Tantasith, Secretary-General of the Office of the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission.
“Thailand has the advantages of the successful 5G auction and of being one of the 5G leaders in ASEAN. The NBTC recognizes the competitive advantages and promotes integration of 5G technology in different sectors to close the digital divide in the country. This is to get Thailand ready for digital transformation in driving our daily life, work and manufacturing forward,” added the Secretary-General of the NBTC.
After the first test trial in Siriraj Hospital, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand at the frontline of the fight against COVID-19, the NBTC will evaluate the benefits and efficiency of the 5G-enable unmanned vehicle before maximizing results from this pilot project to leverage the unmanned vehicle in different uses, as well as in other hospitals.
Prof. Dr. Prasit Watanapa, Dean of Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, said, “As a result of COVID-19 situation, the safety of patients and medical workers must be prioritized, including effective use of resources. Siriraj Hospital places importance on taking full advantage of digital technology in order to holistically increase the efficiency of medical services and operations. The pilot project of 5G unmanned vehicle will enhance the central logistics system within the hospital. At the initial stage, it will be used to transport and distribute medicines for contactless delivery which will help reduce workload and infection risks of frontline workers. This is another important step to improve the quality of healthcare services for long-term development and sustainability.”
Mr. Abel Deng, CEO of Huawei Thailand, said that, “As a global leading company in technology, Huawei is honored and delighted to continuously take part in assisting Thai medical staff. The pilot project of driverless vehicle for Siriraj Hospital will operate under Huawei’s 5G technology to help transport medical supplies within the hospital. This pilot project exemplifies the accelerated digitalization of Thailand’s medical services as 5G will play a key role in the next generation of healthcare. The 5G applications in the public health domain could also inspire businesses in other sectors to leverage 5G’s popularity and explore new applications of the technology. Most significantly, 5G technology will be the key driving force to recover the Thai economy and drive new economic and societal growth for the country across every aspect.”
Huawei’s 5G deal with Indonesia spearheads Southeast Asia pushEconomically neutral region crucial to expansion after Western roadblock
KOYA JIBIKI and TAKASHI KAWAKAMI, Nikkei staff writers
December 2, 2020
JAKARTA/GUANGZHOU – Largely shunned in the West, Huawei Technologies has ramped up its activities in Southeast Asia where governments have maintained a neutral economic stance amid tensions between the U.S. and China.
The Chinese telecommunication equipment leader recently entered an agreement with Indonesia to develop talent in 5G technology and related fields. The company will assist in training 100,000 people to become proficient in digital technology, such as in the cloud and 5G sectors. Huawei will deploy its internal know-how in employee training, based on the memorandum of understanding.
For Indonesia, the memorandum is the first of its kind that the government has entered into.
“With Huawei’s help, we expect to bring the level of our human resources up to international standards,” said a source close to the Indonesian presidential office. Huawei will also collaborate with an Indonesian government agency that is pushing forward development of artificial intelligence and 5G.
The supplier will also provide technological cooperation to Indosat Ooredoo, the second-largest telecom company in Indonesia, in the installation of 5G infrastructure in the Jakarta capital region and other areas. The network will be powered by SRv6, a segment routing standard that boosts connectivity. The country will be the site of the first commercial application of SRv6 in the Asia-Pacific region.
Although Indonesia has squared off politically against China over disputes in the South China Sea, the two sides share favorable relations on the economic front. China is Indonesia’s largest trading partner, for one.
Considering Indonesia is dealing with its own independence movement within its borders, the government has been silent concerning human rights issues in Beijing’s national security law imposed on Hong Kong and the treatment of the country’s Muslim minority Uighur population.
Both Ericsson and Nokia have launched proving tests for 5G networks in Indonesia. However, “Huawei equipment are 20-30% less costly, and the quality is advancing,” said a person close to Telekomunikasi Indonesia, the state-owned telecom.
In Thailand, Huawei established a 5G research center this September that is supporting technical development by startups. Huawei is also spending 700 million baht ($23 million) to build its third data center in Thailand next year, according to local media.
This activity comes amid blowback Huawei faces from the West. The British government said Monday it will not allow the installation of new Huawei equipment starting September next year.
This comes on top of the prohibition against the procurement of the company’s equipment, which goes into effect in January. All Huawei hardware are due to be removed by 2027.
Great Britain this January had originally decided to allow Huawei to enter the 5G market on a limited basis, but switched course due to pressure from the U.S. and in response to the national security legislation Beijing imposed on Hong Kong. Elsewhere in Europe, France is gearing up for a de facto ban on Huawei equipment by 2028.
The same dynamic has spread to a few places in Southeast Asia. In Singapore, the top three telecoms picked Ericsson and Nokia over Huawei as the main suppliers of 5G equipment. Vietnam’s state-owned carrier Viettel has apparently turned its back on Huawei as well.
Even accounting for those setbacks, the pushback against Huawei is weaker in Southeast Asia compared with the U.S. and Europe. There is little resistance to Huawei in Africa as well, but countries there lag in 5G development.
Capital expenditures by telecom operators in Southeast Asia will total $66 billion between 2020 and 2025, according to London-based industry group GSMA. The scale pales in comparison to $282 billion for North America and $181 billion for Europe. But for Huawei, Southeast Asia will be crucial to growth.
“Southeast Asia has been and will remain an important market for Huawei,” said Remy Pascal, principal analyst at the British market intelligence company Omdia. Pascal cites the “good growth potential” and the large number of Huawei clients in the region.
Huawei currently leads in terms of telecom infrastructure. The company commanded a 44% global share in the second quarter, according to Omdia, or more than double Ericsson’s slice. Huawei has benefited from China’s head start in 5G investment, as well as the extensive demand in the domain.
On the other hand, the business environment has been deteriorating for Huawei. In markets such as Japan, the U.S. and Europe, Huawei’s share will inevitably plummet with the rise of 5G investment.
For Huawei’s smartphone segment, shipments are starting to stall in the wake of the limitations on chip procurement imposed by the U.S.
Huawei maintains that there will be no disruptions in its telecom infrastructure business. The equipment does not use semiconductors as sophisticated as those found in smartphones, and there is enough inventory for the components. Huawei’s ability to harness demand in China and tap into Southeast Asia’s potential will hold the key to cushioning the downturn.
“Southeast Asia does not have a unified position regarding Huawei,” said Pascal, touching on the potential for the region to represent a growing share of Huawei’s business. “In that sense, you can say that Southeast Asia will be even more important for Huawei in the future.”
Mobile cellular networks are costly to build. In 2019, the world’s mobile operators earned just over $1 trillion and spent $30 billion on Radio Access Network (RAN) equipment, some 3 percent of revenue. To reduce cost, mobile operators leverage the pool of network equipment vendors, for example by developing new interfaces in network equipment to lower barriers to entry, under the industry term OpenRAN or Open Radio Access Network. OpenRAN is not a per se standard but a collection of technological features purported to allow different vendors to supply 5G networks with “standardized open interfaces” specified by the O-RAN ALLIANCE. Note that O-RAN only addresses internal RAN components. The industry still relies on 3GPP, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, to build an end-to-end mobile cellular network and to connect end-user devices. OpenRAN has become a hot topic in tech policy as an antidote to Huawei equipment in mobile networks, but dozens of Chinese companies have joined the O-RAN ALLIANCE where they can influence OpenRAN standards and manufacturing.
As unsavory practices and relationships between Huawei and the Chinese government have been revealed, many nation state leaders have demanded the removal of Huawei equipment from communications networks. Huawei itself has not succeeded to demonstrate that it is an employee-owned company free from Chinese government control. China’s practice of civil military fusion means that all economic inputs can be commandeered for military purposes. Its de facto information policy asserts sovereignty over the internet and can thus enjoin any Chinese firm or subject to participate in surveillance and espionage. This means that restricting Huawei alone is not sufficient to secure 5G; the presence of any Chinese product in the network poses a security risk.
The O-RAN ALLIANCE was established in 2018 by Deutsche Telekom, NTT DOCOMO, Orange, AT&T, and China Mobile and has grown to 237 mobile operators and network equipment providers. The US has 82 members; China, 44 (3 from Hong Kong); Taiwan, 20; Japan, 14; United Kingdom, 10; India, 10; and Germany, 7. Notably such organizations try to maximize membership and not exclude any company or country, especially those predicated on the notion of “openness”. However unlike democratic countries which have independent judiciaries and constitutionally protected domains for enterprise, the Chinese Communist Party is thoroughly integrated with every commercial entity, especially information technology and telecommunications which are part of the China 2025 Plan. This suggests that one or more of 44 Chinese member companies could be compromised.
The conundrum of engagement with restricted Chinese entities does not end there. Citing security concerns, the Federal Communications Commission rejected a US operating license to China Mobile and may revoke approval for China Telecom for its failure to demonstrate that it is not influenced the Chinese government. Other O-RAN ALLIANCE members include Inspur, Lenovo, Tsinghua, and ZTE, companies the US government restricts for security reasons given their ties to the Chinese government and/or military. The O-RAN ALLIANCE did not return a request for comment.
Some mobile operators cite OpenRAN to avoid ripping and replacing Huawei equipment
While many mobile operators are taking precautions to protect their customers by removing Huawei equipment, Vodafone, Telefonica, and Deutsche Telekom have resisted. They posit the promise of OpenRAN (with the O-RAN ALLIANCE specification) to justify a delay of rip and replace efforts, knowing that OpenRAN products will not be available for some years. Thus, these three operators can extend the life of Huawei in their 5G networks with the promise of using so called “open” equipment which could be influenced by Chinese government standards. Separately the cost to rip and replace Huawei in European networks is minimal, about $7 per European mobile subscriber. The mobile operators which have switched out Huawei equipment have not experience increased cost or delay to the rollout of 5G. No US mobile operators use Huawei in 5G, and all have pledged not to use such equipment as part of the State Department’s Clean 5G initiative. It also seems that OpenRAN itself will not be a security guarantee; operators (and security experts) will still have to perform due diligence on vendors, likely even more numerous in the future.
Huawei Reaches 5G Critical Mass With Germany Approval
November 30, 2020
Germany will allow Huawei to develop part of its 5G network, the Handelsblatt business daily reported last week after consulting a new bill that Angela Merkel’s government will submit to the Bundestag next month.
Japan and South Korea politely but firmly refused to exclude the Chinese telecommunications giant from their networks in October. Among the world’s major economies, only the US, UK, India and Taiwan are planning to block Huawei 5G equipment.
Huawei now has the inside track in the race to develop “Fourth Industrial Revolution” applications that harness the capabilities of 5G, including automatically programmed industrial robots, remote-controlled mining, “smart city” traffic management. », Telemedicine and pandemic control.
For example, Huawei plans to add the digitized medical histories and real-time health monitoring of half a billion people outside of China to its cloud-based artificial intelligence (AI) systems during the 2020s. In addition, China’s dominance in 5G gives it a head start in the development of 6G broadband in the next phase.
The German decision not to block a particular equipment supplier from its 5G build was widely expected after Joe Biden defeated Donald Trump in the US presidential election. Biden advisers have said in the past that it is unrealistic to try to exclude billions of Huawei users from global communications networks.
A recent report titled “Meeting the Challenge of China: A New US Strategy for Technology Competition” from the Asia Society and the University of Southern California, said: “Although a ban on Huawei is possible in some key countries, especially allies and partners, this is a global networking challenge that requires multifaceted solutions. Since Chinese components, user terminals and software will be mixed up among the billions of connected 5G end users around the world, a total ban on the global market from Huawei and other Chinese suppliers is impractical.
Some of the report’s authors are potential officials in the Biden administration.
Japanese media reported in mid-October that Tokyo had rejected US demands to exclude Huawei from its 5G network and told Washington it would take its own security measures to ensure the safety of data transmitted through Huawei hardware. .
South Korean news agency Yonhap said a senior South Korean official told a high-level US delegation: “We have made it clear that if a private telecommunications company uses equipment from a specific company , it’s up to this company to decide.
“Russian 5G will be made in China,” Russian business daily Kommersant reported in September after Russian mobile provider MTS switched from Nokia to Huawei to upgrade Moscow’s mobile network. Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese Xi Jinping signed a framework agreement on 5G cooperation, including for joint research and development, at the 2019 St. Petersburg International Economic Forum.
Excluding Huawei’s 5G equipment from Germany would have caused major disruption as new 5G networks need to be integrated with existing 4G equipment. Huawei represents 65% of the 4G infrastructure of Deutsche Telekom, Germany’s leading provider of mobile services, as well as 55% of Vodaphone equipment and 50% of Telefonica’s equipment.
Earlier this month, German officials described the Huawei decision as a cliffhanger, as German industrial lobbyists argued with German security officials who were reluctant to take the wrath of the U.S. intelligence community. Trump’s loss at the polls appears to have tipped the scales in favor of the industry lobby, which wants to work with China.
In Sweden, where Huawei’s biggest competitor Ericsson is located, the national telecommunications regulator postponed a 5G spectrum auction after a Swedish appeals court granted Huawei’s petition to reconsider the ban by the government to use its broadband equipment.
Ericsson himself has criticized the government ban. China is one of Ericsson’s largest markets, and the company’s largest and most modern production facility opened in Nanjing last year. Ericsson is expected to build up to 10% of China’s vast 5G network, with 10 million base stations in place by 2024.
Huawei working with Ericsson and Nokia to promote fixed 5G networks
December 9, 2020, Alan Burkitt-Gray
Rival equipment vendors Ericsson, Nokia and Huawei are working together with others in an alliance to promote the use of 4G and 5G as an alternative to fiber. They are all part of a new group set up by the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) to promote fixed wireless access (FWA), increasingly seen as an alternative way of delivering broadband in place of full fiber.
GSA president Joe Barrett said the 4G-5G FWA Forum has “27 of the world’s biggest and most innovative vendors from across the FWA ecosystem joining as founding partners and members. “This is tangible evidence of the early growth opportunity for 5G that fixed wireless access offers” Barrett added.
The new group is chaired by a Huawei executive Julien Grivolas and its deputy is John Yazlle of Ericsson.
“The FWA market is seeing rapid growth with over 484 operators investing in FWA based on LTE or 5G — an opportunity that chipset, module, and terminal vendors right across the world are responding to, said Grivolas.
The challenge for the industry in such a rapidly evolving market is to learn from each other, promote successful experiences and identify directions in technical development. By complementing the existing activities of our members, the GSA 4G-5G FWA Forum is committed to giving the fixed wireless ecosystem a voice that operators around the world will hear.
Members include ASRMicro, Casa Systems, Ericsson, Huawei, Nokia, Qualcomm, Sequans and Zhongmi Communications.
The organisation’s first act will be to produce a catalogue of FWA products. The GSA said that it has identified over 1500 LTE FWA devices in its database, of which 822 were added so far this year.
Huawei Launches a Full Series of 5G Solutions for “1+N” Target Networks
November 13, 2020
At the 2020 Global Mobile Broadband Forum (MBBF), Mr. Yang Chaobin, President of Huawei Wireless Network Solution, unveiled the future-oriented “1+N” 5G target networks and released a full series of 5G solutions for building simplified “1+N” 5G networks. “To embrace the approaching golden decade of 5G, we need to evolve our networks towards 5G with full spectrum and build one high-bandwidth simplified target network that ensures ubiquitous connectivity with on-demand overlay of ‘N’ capabilities,” said Yang.
5G is not only a new generation of mobile technology, it also represents the creation of new business, ecosystems, and opportunities. 5G features more diversified services and differentiated requirements in comparison to 4G. The connection of people requires a contiguous high-bandwidth network to provide a premium experience at greatly reduced per-bit costs. The connection of things also requires ubiquitous coverage to support the massive connectivity of IoT terminals. Industry connections, which are applied first in local scenarios, require capabilities such as flexible high uplink, low latency, and high-precision positioning to be deployed on demand. To meet these differentiated requirements, Huawei proposes “1+N” 5G target networks for full-spectrum evolution toward 5G and building a ubiquitous high-capacity foundation network, with high mid-band bandwidth as its core and other frequency bands to achieve differentiated benefits and on-demand overlay of ‘N’ capabilities.
Any endeavor begins with one step. User experience is the basis upon which leapfrogged 5G services are developed. The cost per bit of 5G networks must be reduced to offer continuous cross-generation user experience. The combination of high IF bandwidth and Massive MIMO (M-MIMO) is the key to developing a high-bandwidth network to achieve ubiquitous connectivity.
Scaled deployment worldwide has shown that TDD high-bandwidth M-MIMO has been highly recognized across the industry. TDD IF M-MIMO achieves co-coverage at the same sites with 1.8 GHz and a minimal of a tenfold improvement in user experience compared with that of 4G. The performance of the same hardware varies considerably with different algorithms. As the cornerstone of M-MIMO performance, algorithms greatly affect the performance of commercial networks. Huawei’s pioneering algorithms will enable operators to significantly improve user experience and the cell capacity of 5G networks. Huawei’s adaptive high resolution (AHR) algorithm will help operators to further expand network capacity in scenarios with high user density and strong interference. The UL/DL decoupling solution improves the uplink coverage of TDD IF bands. It improves M-MIMO coverage by 6 dB to 7 dB in the uplink and by 2 dB to 3 dB in the downlink. At MBBF 2020, Huawei also released the multi-band UL/DL decoupling solution, which supports the combination of 3.5 GHz/3.7 GHz and 1.8 GHz/2.1 GHz/700 MHz, 2.6 GHz and 1.8 GHz/700 MHz, 4.9 GHz and 2.3 GHz.
In 2019, Huawei launched the industry’s first Blade AAU, which integrates Sub-3 GHz and 32T32R M-MIMO to address the issue of extremely limited antenna spaces in some markets, enabling simplified deployment of single-antenna 5G M-MIMO. This year, Huawei released Blade AAU Pro, which supports 64T64R M-MIMO and Sub-3 GHz full-band. The solution comes with the unique “transparent” antenna technology which simplifies deployment and thereby reduces costs.
For markets in which high-bandwidth TDD is hard to come by or the capacity load is heavy, Huawei launched the industry’s first FDD M-MIMO, which substantially improves cell capacity to three to four times that of 4T4R networks. The innovative metamaterial dipole design and ultra-small PIM-free filter technology enable FDD M-MIMO to have an amplitude width of less than 500 mm and engineering specifications equivalent to TDD M-MIMO.
“Huawei’s wide array of IF M-MIMO solutions and advanced software algorithms can help operators build an IF-oriented high-bandwidth foundation network for ubiquitous connectivity that delivers optimal user experience,” Yang added.
While running basic services on high-bandwidth IF bands, operators can also develop differentiated advantages by using other spectrums, such as those assigned for FDD or Super Uplink. But this poses challenges such as fragmented spectrums, diversified channels and sectors, and varying spectrum lifecycles. “To innovate ‘N’ capabilities, we need to simplify deployment while maintaining diversity and order,” said Yang.
At MBBF 2020, Huawei released its highly integrated Blade Pro portfolio for FDD applications. This portfolio includes the industry-acclaimed ultra-wideband RRU, which slashes the number of required devices by two thirds by integrating three low or three intermediate FDD bands into one box, greatly simplifying deployment. It also supports dynamic power sharing on multiple bands, making this RRU extremely energy efficient. The Blade Pro flexible channel solution, powered by the industry’s first digital software-defined antenna (SDA) and 8T8R RRU, is perfect for various scenarios due to its exceptional flexibility. It supports multi-TX, multi-sector coverage to deliver large capacity and 2 x 4T4R or 4 x 2T2R on one module to cover traffic lines or serve tubular tower sites.
Pole sites can close coverage gaps, offload traffic, and enhance the uplink in cases where macro base stations can provide only basic, incomplete coverage. Huawei also launched a series of simplified solutions to supplement 5G coverage. Easy Macro 3.0 is the industry’s first application that carries FDD 4T4R and TDD 8T8R in one box, and it also supports simplified deployment of UL/DL decoupling. Book RRU 3.0 realizes both TDD and FDD 4T4R. For indoor coverage, the LampSite EE suite provides B2B capabilities, such as D-MIMO, Super Uplink, and high-precision positioning, to accommodate differentiated services in varying scenarios.
Efficient O&M is a huge challenge in building “1+N” target networks. One challenge can be effectively targeting capabilities for B2B and maintaining 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G simultaneously. Another challenge is balancing user experience and energy consumption or on-demand slicing and spectral efficiency. Fully optimizing capabilities such as latency, bandwidth, uplink, and downlink is also difficult. AI-assisted autonomous driving of networks will be the optimal way to address the challenges O&M poses in the 5G era.
Through continuous innovation, Huawei has developed a new series of solutions powered by its MBB Automation Engine (MAE) autonomous driving network. The 5GtoB suite enables intelligent and precise planning, simplified provisioning on demand, and proactive network O&M. It realizes a perfect alignment with industry Service Level Agreement (SLA) requirements, adaptive deployment in complex scenarios, and real-time SLA monitoring and fault prediction, facilitating digital layout of the 5G B2B industry. The 5G WTTx suite provides reliable service provisioning check, precise network capacity warning and capacity expansion guidance as well as network evaluation and line management, greatly improving the O&M efficiency of 5G WTTx services. PowerStar, with the help of AI, implements intelligent carrier management based on traffic, reverse mobility load balancing (MLB) energy saving based on energy efficiency, and hierarchical energy saving based on key performance indicators (KPIs). It greatly reduces network energy consumption through coordinated energy saving between multiple frequency bands and radio access technologies. Test results on commercial live networks reveal that PowerStar brings “1+N” energy efficiency and optimal user experience, reducing energy consumption by 15% and increasing network traffic by 10%.
5G promises a bright future. The mobile industry needs to build more powerful networks and create opportunities in the coming golden decade of 5G. Huawei is ready with “1+N” simplified 5G networks and a complete range of solutions.
Shenzhen, China, August 20, 2020] Huawei and China Telecom Shenzhen jointly launched the world’s first pilot site that binds 5G Super Uplink and downlink carrier aggregation (CA). This pilot innovatively leverages Super Uplink to maximize uplink coverage and experience, as well as fully utilizes downlink dual-carrier CA to deliver optimal user experience.
This is a new breakthrough following China Telecom and Huawei’s joint commercial adoption of Super Uplink. The success of this pilot shows that the advantages of China Telecom and China Unicom sharing 5G networks, once seen only in technical solutions, are already available on commercial networks. It also marks a major milestone in the construction of 5G best-experience networks and a great achievement for China Telecom Shenzhen’s 5G City initiative.
The coordination of TDD and FDD reflects a new trend in 5G network construction. By pooling both Super Uplink and downlink CA, 5G networks leverage the complementary advantages between 5G high bands and low bands as well as the aggregation in both the time and frequency domains. This will further provide 5G networks with a higher bandwidth, wider coverage, and lower latency, which are urgently required to expand 5G’s applications across 5G vertical industries. This will also enable 5G cells to support a bandwidth of up to 200 MHz, ensuring a premium downlink experience in network sharing use cases.
This pilot site uses 200 MHz 3.5 GHz TDD spectrum and 20 MHz 2.1 GHz FDD spectrum in the uplink. Single-user concurrent tests were completed in standalone (SA) networking mode. The results of the test showed that the average uplink rate reached 470 Mbps and the average downlink rate 2.43 Gbps, which are approximately 1.3 times and double that with a single 100 MHz bandwidth, respectively.
5G Super Uplink has notable advantages over uplink CA. Super Uplink enables integrated uplink scheduling between two uplink carriers in one cell. This scheduling mechanism is more efficient than uplink CA implemented between two cells. In addition, uplink and downlink bands are decoupled, enabling downlink carriers to be flexibly added to adapt to data traffic requirements. For example, CA can be disabled or implemented within one band or between two bands. As uplink CA depends on downlink CA and its bands must be a subset of downlink CA bands, uplink CA cannot be used in the cases of asymmetric uplink-only bands, further highlighting the greater flexibility of Super Uplink.
The “5G Super Uplink and downlink CA” pilot is hugely significant to maximizing 5G capabilities through converged deployment between 5G FDD and TDD bands, particularly when it comes to network sharing and expanding 5G’s applications into vertical industries. China Telecom and China Unicom will continue to increase investment in innovation of solutions through close collaboration, steadily turning the potential advantages of network sharing into an important component of 5G networks to deliver the premium experience.
One of China’s selling points in the competition to build 5G is that Beijing has already started developing next-generation, or 6G, broadband. In November, China launched the first 6G experimental satellite, testing data transmission at Terahertz (extremely short) wavelengths. Researchers have discussed using Terahertz radiation as a broadband mobile platform, but the Chinese satellite launch is the first experimental test in space.
During an Asia Times webinar in November, I interviewed industry expert Dr Handel Jones about the prospects for 6G. Jones, president of International Business Services, a consulting firm, said, “China has at least two or three programs in terms of 6G. It’s a ten-year program, and it will potentially be ten times or a hundred times the size of 5G. Quantum communications is one of the options, and China already has a link with quantum communications between Shanghai and Beijing. Obviously, the United States should switch to 6G. ”
“But who’s going to do it?” Jones added. “We don’t have a company in the United States that currently uses 5G. We have part of the infrastructure but not the base stations, not the optical fiber, so overall we have Huawei and ZTE in China; in Europe we have Ericsson and Nokia. Samsung is coming and could be a force in this market in the future. It would be the same for certain technologies in Japan. But in the United States, we don’t have a company that is even 5G. ”
The United States appears likely to adopt the so-called “open radio access network” and “virtualized radio access network” approach, which eschews dedicated 5G base stations with custom-designed chips in favor of ‘cheap generic hardware powered by complex software.
The quoted “China Challenge” report recommended: “The United States should not attempt to win a race between Huawei and a new US national champion. Instead, the United States should adopt a forward-looking strategy to enable a variety of new entrants to successfully enter the 5G innovation space. This strategy would reduce dependency on a single equipment supplier for the entire 5G network by facilitating the emergence of open and modular architectures such as ORAN or vRAN. ”
ORAN / vRan requires the creation of billions of lines of computer code which must then be tested and retested in real conditions. It is not known whether this approach will work or how much it will cost. By the time the code is written and the new network is tested, moreover, China will have built its national network of 10 million base stations and will probably be well advanced in new applications.
This combination of sophisticated software and generic hardware is sometimes presented as a “6G” response to Huawei’s dominance in 5G. This is misleading because using extremely short wavelengths to transmit data requires the solution of physics problems that researchers are only beginning to understand. And using open networks involving a wide variety of hardware and equipment vendors could create a network security nightmare, according to Ericsson.
Jason Boswell, Head of Security for Ericsson’s Networks Division, warned last month: “As the industry moves towards RAN virtualization, with 3GPP or O-RAN, it is important that a risks is adopted to adequately address the security risks. Secure Open RAN systems may require additional security measures that are not yet fully considered. Ericsson quietly left the industry group promoting ORAN / vRan earlier this year.
US tech companies abandoned the hardware industry after the March 2000 stock market crash and focused almost exclusively on software. The “software solution” is suitable for companies primarily engaged in coding software, but America is unlikely to outpace China and its growing network of industrial partners.
5G standards: Could the US soon work with Huawei to set them?
7 May 2020
Some US firms stopped working with Huawei to develop 5G standards after US blacklisted the firm, but change may be here.
The United States Department of Commerce is close to signing off on a new rule that would allow US companies to work with China’s Huawei Technologies on setting standards for next-generation 5G networks, people familiar with the matter said.
Engineers in some US technology companies stopped engaging with Huawei to develop standards after the Commerce Department blacklisted the company last year. The listing left companies uncertain about what technology and information their employees could share with Huawei, the world’s largest telecommunications equipment maker.
The Commerce Department placed Huawei on its “entity list” last May, citing national security concerns. The listing restricted sales of US goods and technology to the company and raised questions about how US firms could participate in organizations that establish industry standards.
After nearly a year of uncertainty, the department has drafted a new rule to address the issue, two sources told Reuters. The rule, which could still change, essentially allows US companies to participate in standards bodies where Huawei is also a member, the sources said.
The draft is under final review at the Commerce Department and, if cleared, would go to other agencies for approval, the people said. It is unclear how long the full process will take or if another agency will object.
“As we approach the year mark, it is very much past time that this be addressed and clarified,” said Naomi Wilson, senior director of policy for Asia at the Information Technology Industry Council (ITI), which represents companies including Amazon.co Inc, Qualcomm Inc and Intel Corp.
The US government wants US companies to remain competitive with Huawei, Wilson said. “But their policies have inadvertently caused US companies to lose their seat at the table to Huawei and others on the entity list.”
The rule is only expected to address Huawei, the people familiar with the matter said, not other listed entities like Chinese video surveillance firm Hikvision.
In adding Huawei to the list last May, the Commerce Department cited US charges pending against the company for alleged violations of US sanctions against Iran. It also noted that the indictment alleges Huawei engaged in “deceptive and obstructive acts” to evade US law. Huawei has pleaded not guilty in the case.
A Department of Commerce spokesman declined to comment. A Huawei spokeswoman also declined to comment.
“I know that Commerce is working on that rule,” a senior State Department official told Reuters on Wednesday. “We are supportive in trying to find a solution to that conundrum.”
The White House and departments of Defense, Energy, and Treasury did not immediately respond to requests for comment.
“International standard setting is important to the development of 5G,” said another senior administration official, who also did not want to be identified. “The discussions are about balancing that consideration with America’s national security needs.”
Six US senators, including China hawks Marco Rubio, James Inhofe, and Tom Cotton, last month sent a letter to the US secretaries of Commerce, State, Defense, and Energy about the urgent need to issue regulations confirming that US participation in 5G standards-setting is not restricted by the entity listing.
“We are deeply concerned about the risks to the US global leadership position in 5G wireless technology as a result of this reduced participation,” the letter said.
In the telecommunications industry, 5G, or fifth-generation wireless networks, are expected to power everything from high-speed video transmissions to self-driving cars.
Industry standards also are big business for telecommunications firms. They vie to have their patented technology considered essential to the standard, which can boost a company’s bottom line by billions of dollars.
The ITIC’s Wilson said the uncertainty had led US-base standards bodies to consider moving abroad, noting that the nonprofit RISC-V Foundation decided to move from Delaware to Switzerland a few months ago.
The foundation oversees promising semiconductor technology developed with Pentagon support and, as Reuters has reported, wants to ensure those outside the US can help develop its open-source technology.
SOURCE: REUTERS NEWS AGENCY
The US Restricts Huawei In 5G, But WiFi Is Up For Grabs
The US and other countries restrict Huawei in 5G (even providing funding to “rip and replace” the equipment), but this does not stop the company from deploying in Wi-Fi networks. Once a device is deployed in WiFi, it can’t be forcibly recalled for security reasons. Huawei touts its role in WiFi 6, considered the future-proofing strategy for the WiFi industry. The Austin-based WiFi Alliance recently honored top tier member Huawei for its leadership in the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ program, allowing its products to be embossed with the WiFi CERTIFIED™ seal. The advocacy group recently congratulated Federal Communications Commission Chairman Ajit Pai for the April 23 vote to designate 1200 MHz of the 6 GHz band for unlicensed use, quintupling the spectrum for technologies such as WiFi. The WiFi Alliance did not respond to a request for comment.
Unlicensed spectrum is celebrated for being free and open to anyone, and the WiFi industry plans to deploy hundreds of millions of connected devices in the 6 GHz band. However, providers of critical infrastructure services in public safety, communications, rail, electric, gas, water, and wastewater are not enthused; they operate some 100,000 fixed service links in the band, over which the forthcoming WiFi devices would be deployed. Failing to forestall the FCC’s proposal which they say threatens the safety of their networks, they urged the FCC to adopt greater controls to mitigate interference, as regulating power levels for transmission is insufficient to protect existing networks. For example, many homes have backyards that border a railroad, and the signal for their WiFi router, even at low power, can be observed outside. This means that a device need not have a security vulnerability to threaten critical infrastructure, to say nothing of deliberate security vulnerabilities.
The FCC may have denied China Mobile license to operate in the US for national security concerns, but its daughter company China Mobile Group Device Co. can access US networks through America’s standards organizations and its WiFi networks. Indeed China’s influence of international standards organizations to circumvent national security policy is well established area of policy research.
Today In: Enterprise Tech
Among the 800 members of the WiFi Alliance are many firms owned and affiliated with the Chinese government and listed in the US National Vulnerabilities Database, restricting their use in the federal government. These member firms include WiFi Alliance honoree Lenovo, world’s leading maker of laptops, ZTE Corporation (network equipment), Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Co., Ltd. (surveillance cameras), Lexmark (printers), and TCL Corporation (smart TVs). My report Stealing from the States: China’s Power Play in IT Contracts documents how such companies have evaded rules against their deployment in US federal networks to embed themselves at the state level, home to treasure troves of sensitive data for elections, financial reports, and personal information but which have fewer security controls.
The bipartisan sanction of Huawei by Congress, the Department of Commerce, the FCC and other agencies may have stopped Huawei from federal networks and 5G, but it doesn’t necessarily stop Huawei in state government, private companies, and WiFi networks. Indeed, many vulnerable technologies proliferate where there are not explicit restrictions. Moreover, federal bans do not stop Chinese government-owned companies from playing important roles in US standard setting and IT advocacy organizations. Following placement on the Entity List, Huawei was ejected but then quickly reinstated as a member at the WiFi Alliance, IEEE, SD Association, and JEDEC. Some claim there is no choice but to accept Chinese government owned vendors in standards groups, but China’s endgame is clear: It has long been architecting an alternative version of the internet which does not include American technology nor any pretense of coexistence.
While the value of WiFi is undisputed, the FCC’s proposal would give restricted Chinese firms free rein to a wide swath of spectrum overlaying critical infrastructure for utilities, transportation and public safety.
Moreover, the US is behind on licensing mid-band spectrum where malicious vendors and devices can be excluded. China has some 500 MHz of mid-band spectrum in play for 5G, the US hasn’t even concluded its mid-band 5G auctions, itself a national security issue raised by two dozen security and defense experts. If we don’t want Huawei in 5G, it shouldn’t be in WiFi either.
Huawei 5G News
It has been coming—and now it’s here. Huawei 5G has gone live in Russia. This isn’t the first 5G pilot to launch in Moscow, but it is the most notable. It is based on an agreement signed between China’s Xi Jinping and Russia’s Vladimir Putin at the 2019 St Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF). The context of that discussion went to the heart of the emerging technology split between East and West, and so this launch has real political significance.
Russian network Tele2 went live in Moscow with Ericsson several weeks ago. And now, according to media reports this weekend, competing mobile operator MTS “has teamed up with Chinese tech giant Huawei for a 5G pilot scheme in Moscow—where for the first time the super-fast network will cover almost the entire city.”
5G pilots were not the only Huawei agenda item when Xi met Putin in June. That same meeting touched on the potential for Huawei smartphones to transition to Russian OS Aurora—which had been discussed in more detail between Huawei and Russia’s minister of digital development and communications. Last week, Reuters reported that Huawei is getting set to install Aurora “on 360,000 of its tablets to conduct Russia’s population census next year.” Reuters’ described the pilot as “the first stage of launching the Russian OS on Huawei devices.”
The same leaders’ meeting also covered the emerging tech split between the U.S. and its allies on one side, and China and others—including Russia—on the other. The so-called Splinternet strikes fear in certain intelligence agencies—loss of control, and across major players in the Western tech sector—loss of revenue. And those tech players include the likes of Intel, Qualcomm, Google and Microsoft.
At the time, it was also suggested Huawei might begin some Russian R&D and manufacturing, including “the joint production of chips and software.” The fact that the initial Aurora pilot looks set to be a Russian government program is consistent with the implication that there’s a deeper level of collaboration behind the scenes. Everything is linked.
Before the leaders came together in June, I had asked Moscow CIO and Government Minister Eduard Lysenko if he had concerns with the security risks associated with Huawei. Lysenko’s response was pointed. “The Russian Federation,” he told me, “has strict information security regulations which we always follow.” Russia and Washington have different views of the threat to national security from Huawei’s alleged intelligence links with Beijing.
5G was first piloted in Moscow in 2018, “during the World Cup,” Lysenko told me, “MegaFon, [another Russian network operators], used Nokia 5G equipment to demonstrate VR Broadcasts.” Now, though, “MegaFon have agreed to develop and implement 5G standards in Russia with Huawei.”
With respect to the Government of Moscow, the collaboration between China and Russia is a few pay grades up. And it extends to escalating hybrid warfare around the world, the peddling of influence and population control and interference, the ongoing cyber war in the Middle East, where both China and Russia see Iran as a unique proxy through which to battle the U.S. and its regional allies.
With the agreement between Xi and Putin signed, I quizzed Lysenko again on the role of Huawei. I asked him about the talks between Putin and Xi. “As I’m not part of the Russian Government,” he said, “I cannot be a source of information on the country leader’s agenda.”
As for Huawei’s role, he told me that “the Moscow Government has not signed any agreements with Huawei—the Moscow Government signed agreements with telecom operators and poses no restrictions on these operators and allows them to enter into agreements with different equipment suppliers.” Ironically, Lysenko described this Moscow-Beijing collaboration as “like in other European countries, securing the free market principle providing same opportunities for telecom operators and suppliers.”
And, as regards Huawei security concerns, his view hasn’t changed as the equipment has been deployed. “Our security systems are tailored to all types of threats,” he said “Of course, there are threats at various levels, but we are ready for them. In 2018, we repelled over 27,000 hacker attacks on our computers and are now constantly updating our security system.”
And so to that big picture. The emerging splinternet. “That China is a technology partner for us,” Lysenko told me, “is understandable and sufficiently predicted to build further relations—our primal interest is the growth of technological progress. Russia has fairly strict laws in the field of information technology development and we put forward serious safety requirements and demand their full implementation. Accordingly, we work only with those who can meet these requirements.”
Moscow is aware that it needs a defensible technical position in case other countries withdraw capabilities. “We do not know what position European companies will have in relations with Russia tomorrow,” Lysenko acknowledged. “In this sense, the story of Huawei is indicative. You can’t rely on the market of one country, you need to diversify the risks and that is what Russian operators are doing.”
And do Moscow’s citizens share the confidence in China’s technology in general and Huawei in particular? “We did not encounter any mass concerns of Moscow citizens on what is being written in the U.S. press. We did not receive complaints or requests to stop the exploitation of the Huawei.”
Moscow’s various 2019 5G pilots will build on the success of the World Cup trial, Lysenko had explained, with “full commercial use of 5G expected in 2020-2022.” The Huawei network will also “test so-called Smart City technology,” Russian media reported, “designed to improve security and urban services management, as well as helping to develop the transport system.”
But the real importance of this story goes way beyond the downloading of HD movies, the management of transportation systems or the development of citizen services.
Huawei executive says the ‘biggest winners’ in 5G will be its partners
LISBON, Portugal — A top Huawei executive has urged companies to partner with the Chinese tech giant to develop 5G technology applications, saying in a speech Monday that those who do will be the “biggest winners.”
In a keynote address at the Web Summit tech conference in Lisbon, Portugal, Huawei Rotating Chairman Guo Ping highlighted the company’s ambitions to be a global leader in 5G, adding the rollout of the new commercial networks is going “faster than expected.”
The 5G technology aims to bring faster speeds and lower lag times than previous networks like 4G and 3G. In addition to speeding up download times for consumers, 5G has been touted as a possible game-changer in applications like driverless cars and remote surgery that require quick, reliable internet connections.
Guo said the applications and software built on top of 5G “are what generate true value.”
“This is a huge market worth trillions of U.S. dollars,” Guo said. “The biggest winners will be our partners.”
U.S. officials have warned that Huawei’s 5G technology, which includes both software and networking equipment, poses a security threat because it could open a backdoor for Chinese spying. They point to Chinese laws that allegedly require every domestic company to assist with intelligence gathering if Beijing requests it. Huawei has repeatedly denied that it would engage in any form of espionage or provide data to the Chinese government.
In May, the U.S. placed Huawei on a blacklist, which forced American companies to get special licenses to do business with the Chinese firm. So far, no licenses have been granted, though U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said in an interview Sunday that they are coming “very shortly.”
As a result of the blacklist, Huawei was unable to license the latest version of Android’s operating system on its new Mate 30 smartphone. That means the phones will not come pre-installed with Google apps like Maps, YouTube, or Gmail.
Huawei has instead been developing its own operating system called HarmonyOS and is investing $1.5 billion over the next five years to encourage developers to design apps for its devices.
“Huawei’s smartphones, smartwatches, and smart screens are very popular,” Guo said Monday. “To deliver better experience, we are opening up to more third-party apps and services.”
Vodafone UK Huawei 5G Site Visits with Field Performance Testing
Huawei begins testing 5G in Malaysia nationwide
Huawei chief offers to share 5G know-how for a fee
12 September 2019
Ren Zhengfei says a Western buyer could modify his firm’s products to meet the US’s security concerns
Huawei’s chief executive has proposed selling its current 5G know-how to a Western firm as a way to address security concerns voiced by the US and others about its business.
Ren Zhengfei said the buyer would be free to “change the software code”.
That would allow any flaws or supposed backdoors to be addressed without Huawei’s involvement.
The US and Australia have banned their networks from using Huawei’s equipment. The UK is still weighing a decision.
Huawei has repeatedly denied claims that it would help the Chinese government spy on or disrupt other countries’ telecoms systems, and says it is a private enterprise owned by its workers.
One expert, who had previously cast doubts on Huawei’s claims to independence, said the idea of it helping another country’s business to compete represented an “extraordinary offer”.
“Perhaps the explanation is that Huawei recognises that it is unlikely to be able to bypass the efforts the Trump administration is putting into minimising its scope to operate in North America, Western Europe and Australasia,” said Prof Steve Tsang from Soas University of London.
“But it’s difficult to see Nokia or Ericsson being interested in buying it. And it’s also difficult to see how an American company would be able to reassure the Trump administration that it’s absolutely top notch American technology.
“And if they can’t do that, why would they want to spend tens of billions of US dollars on something that will quickly become out-of-date.”
The deal would allow a Western firm to use Huawei’s tech to making competing 5G products
It would include ongoing access to the firm’s existing 5G patents, licences, code, technical blueprints and production engineering knowledge.
“This would create a balanced situation between China, the US and Europe.”
Speaking to the Economist he added: “A balanced distribution of interests is conducive to Huawei’s survival.”
A spokesman for Huawei has confirmed the quotes are accurate and the idea represents a “genuine proposal”.
At present, Europe’s Nokia and Ericsson are the main alternatives to Huawei when it comes to networks selecting what 5G cell tower base stations and other equipment to install.
South Korea’s Samsung and China’s ZTE are other alternatives.
But while American firms including Cisco, Dell EMC and Hewlett Packard Enterprise have developed 5G-related technologies, the US lacks an infrastructure-equipment specialist of its own.
Beyond the licensing fee, Huawei could benefit because it might convince Washington to drop restrictions that currently prevent it buying US-linked technologies for its own use.
One consequence of this is that Huawei faces having to launch an Android smartphone later this month that will not offer Google apps such as YouTube or the Play Store.
A deal would also help ensure Huawei gets its 5G technologies widely adopted.
For instance, 5G supports two different coding techniques for data transmission to help tackle interference.
Huawei has developed a technique called “polar codes”, which it says will give 5G devices longer battery life than an alternative favoured by many Western firms called “low density parity check”.
If polar codes are widely adopted, Huawei will earn more patent fees from device-makers that support them.
One company-watcher, however, suggested Ren’s proposal was doomed to fail.
“The issue is not the trustworthiness of Huawei as a vendor but the legal obligations that the Chinese government imposes on it.
“China’s National Intelligence Law requires Chinese businesses and citizens to surrender any data or ‘communication tools’ they may have access to, under strict punitive sanctions.
“Any equipment or software that Huawei licenses to an US entity would still fall under this obligation, and there is no way that the licensing entity or the intelligence agencies could scrutinise millions of lines of code for potential backdoors.”
But Prof Tsang said the proposal was still a “smart move”.
Even if Huawei’s offer is ultimately rejected, he explained, it demonstrates that the company is willing to go to remarkable lengths to try and win the West’s trust.
Huawei believes banning it from 5G will make countries insecure.
Chinese giant warns of potential for backdoors in 6G thanks to AI.
By Chris Duckett September 1, 2019 Topic: 5G
Huawei may be lacking 5G contracts and 100 former employees in Australia as a result of its banning in 2018, but one thing it is certainly not lacking is gumption.
The Chinese giant’s recently appointed chief technology and cyber security officer David Soldani said last week that Australia is set for a world of cyber pain.
“Blocking companies from certain countries does nothing to make Australia any safer from cybersecurity issues — in fact it just makes things worse because they are not addressing the real issues on cybersecurity,” Soldani said.
The CTSO warned that thanks to Huawei being ahead of its rivals in 6G research, it could see how insecure those networks could potentially be as the attack surface becomes larger.
“With the converge of management and control plane, AI will poses a significant impact on network security, as it might be exploited to launch more effective attacks, and in some scenarios, the security of AI systems is a matter of life and death,” he said.
“Unlike security vulnerabilities in traditional systems, the root cause of security weaknesses in machine learning systems lies in the lack of explainability, which leaves openings that can be exploited by adversarial machine learning methods such as evasion, poisoning, and backdoor attacks.
“Attackers may also implant backdoors in models and launch targeted attacks or extract model parameters or training data from query results.”
The wording from Soldari is particularly interesting, considering that the term backdoors is quite heated when placed next to the word Huawei.
Head to the nearest interview with founder Ren Zhengfei, and once again Ren repeats past assurances about not installing backdoors.
“I can assure you that I won’t allow backdoors on our equipment,” Ren told the UK’s Sky News last month.
And yet, Huawei in Australia is warning that even if its 5G equipment is clean, there is a technology coming down the pipeline that can absolutely be backdoored, thanks to the black box of artificial intelligence.
Intelligence folks in Canberra who warned the distinction between edge and core networks was diminished in 5G, will be positively high-fiving their foresight with Huawei’s 6G warning.
“The distinction between core and edge collapses in 5G networks. That means that a potential threat anywhere in the network will be a threat to the whole network,” then Director-General of the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD) Mike Burgess said in October.
“In consultation with operators and vendors, we worked hard this year to see if there were ways to protect our 5G networks if high-risk vendor equipment was present anywhere in these networks.
“At the end of this process, my advice was to exclude high-risk vendors from the entirety of evolving 5G networks.”
Burgess has since moved up to become Australia’s spy chief, as Director-General of Security for the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO).
Before he returned to the ASD, Burgess was chief information security officer for Australia’s incumbent telco, Telstra. Suffice to say that the new ASIO chief is fully up to speed on the cybers, especially in the telco space, and would be extremely unlikely to overturn a ban that he recommended.
However, Soldari claimed that banning companies would be counter-productive.
“It actually makes Australia less secure because it means we have to then increase our reliance on just one or two other vendors — neither of whom are having their equipment tested,” he said.
“Unless Australia changes it approach and adopts a standards and certification led approach to security then it will simply sleepwalk into a world of cybersecurity problems in both 5G and 6G for which it is totally unprepared.”
It’s an interesting piece of mind bending that Huawei is trying to push: By cleaning up its telco supply chain on a nationwide scale, Australia has made itself insecure. Or to put it another way, to fight a particular disease, don’t focus on the vaccines, a cure is the only way to win.
A fortnight ago, Huawei Australia chair John Lord really turned up the mind bending when he told the ABC the local arm had legal advice that exempted it from Chinese laws.
“We are immune. We have two legal opinions that says it does not apply to us,” Lord said.
“It definitely does not apply to us outside of China … we can put our equipment in, it’s operated by telcos who are in Australia, maintained by Australians and therefore, there is no way in the world any information in Australia will be handed over to any other government in any country, will be handed over to a foreign government.”
If you think that Beijing would allow one of its own companies to refuse its demands under China’s national security laws, or American companies would defy Washington during a national emergency, I think you are in the right frame of mind to purchase the Sydney Harbour Bridge: It’s only had one owner, and has low mileage.
The best reason for Australia’s Huawei ban was delivered by former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull in March, who said it was not done at the behest of another nation or for protectionist reasons, but because it defended Australia’s sovereignty and as a “hedge against changing times”.
“It is important to remember that a threat is the combination of capability and intent,” Turnbull said.
“Capability can take years, decades to develop. And in many cases won’t be attainable at all. But intent can change in a heartbeat.”
As a western middle power glances around the world thinking about which countries could potentially turn hostile, the chances of China facing off against the west whether in a cyber or kinetic form is many orders of magnitude higher than Finland, Sweden, or South Korea — the homes of Nokia, Ericsson, and Samsung respectively.
In a world where anyone telling you they know what will happen next week is either misinformed, lying, or both, who is to know what an authoritarian regime in the Middle Kingdom will decide to do, let alone the collection of unpredictable leaders running the Anglosphere.
Given these circumstances, prudence alone says Australia is better off trusting equipment from Stockholm, Seoul, or Helsinki than Huawei, if only to deny Beijing home ground advantage in our telco networks. It’s the same reasoning that would see China glare at American equipment inside of its networks.
New Rule Prohibits U.S. Government Agencies From Acquiring Telecommunications Equipment or Services From Huawei, ZTE, Certain Other Chinese Companies
In an interim rule published on August 13, 2019, the U.S. government revised the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to prohibit federal agencies from acquiring telecommunications equipment or services produced or provided by Huawei Technologies Company, ZTE Corporation and certain other Chinese companies. The new rule applies to “covered telecommunications equipment or services,” which include the following:
“Any telecommunications equipment or services produced or provided by Huawei, ZTE, or their subsidiaries or affiliates;
video surveillance and telecommunications equipment produced by Hytera Communications Corporation, Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Company, Dahua Technology Company, or their subsidiaries or affiliates if such equipment is used for public safety or national security purposes;
video surveillance or telecommunications services provided by such entities for any purpose; and
telecommunications or video surveillance equipment or services produced or provided by an entity owned or controlled by, or otherwise connected to, the government of the People’s Republic of China.”
The same rule prohibits federal agencies from acquiring any equipment, system or service that uses covered telecommunications equipment or services as a substantial or essential component of any system. The rule, which implements Section 889(a)(1)(A) of the FY2019 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), became effective August 13, 2019. Interested parties may submit comments on the interim rule until October 15, 2019.
New Rule Details
Contracting officers now must insert a new provision, FAR 52.204-24 (Representation Regarding Certain Telecommunications and Video Surveillance Services or Equipment), in all solicitations for contracts and all notices of intent to place an order under indefinite delivery contracts (including GSA Schedule contracts). That provision requires each offeror to represent that it will, or will not, provide to the government equipment or services covered by this rule in the performance of any contract, subcontract or other contractual instrument resulting from the solicitation. If the offeror responds affirmatively in the representation, it must disclose significant detail about the identity, operation, proposed use and manufacturer or producer of the equipment, and any factors relevant to determining whether the proposed use of the equipment would be permissible because, for example, the equipment cannot route or redirect user data traffic or permit visibility into any user data or packets that the equipment handles.
Contracting officers also must insert a new clause, FAR 52.204-25 (Prohibition on Contracting for Certain Telecommunications and Video Surveillance Services or Equipment), in all contracts and orders under existing contracts—including contracts for commercial items and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) items—that implements the prohibition against delivering to government customers equipment or services covered by the new rule, and imposes strict reporting requirements on contractors that discover such equipment or services during contract performance. Basic information about the discovered equipment or services, and any readily available information about mitigation actions undertaken or recommended, must be reported to the contracting officer (or, for Department of Defense contracts, to https://dibnet.dod.mil) within one business day of identification. Within 10 business days, the contractor must report additional information about mitigation efforts, the efforts it took to prevent the use of the discovered equipment in the first instance and any additional efforts that will be implemented to prevent future occurrences. Contractors must include the new clause in all subcontracts, including subcontracts for commercial items.
Implications for Contractors
Sellers of telecommunications equipment and services to government customers must account for and implement this prohibition, and the related reporting requirements, in both their sourcing operations (including through amendments to subcontracts and other supply agreements) and in their related strategic decision-making. Failure to do so can lead to various adverse consequences, including, for example, allegations of civil or criminal violations of the false claims and false statements statutes.
Although not implemented by the current rulemaking, a related aspect of the FY2019 NDAA (at Section 889(a)(1)(B)) has implications for government contractors generally. As of August 13, 2020, U.S. government agencies may not enter into, extend or renew a contract with an entity that uses telecommunications equipment or services of the sort described above. This related prohibition will be implemented in future rulemaking, but contractors in all industries should review their existing telecommunications equipment and services and consider changes that may be necessary to comply with the prohibition that takes effect next year.
2019 Perkins Coie LLP
Huawei agrees to UK security steps to avoid 5G ban
Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre says it has ‘concerns around a range of technical issues, and has set out improvements Huawei must make
PUBLISHED December 7, 2018
Embattled Chinese telecommunications giant Huawei Technologies has agreed to British intelligence demands to address risks in its equipment and software, as the company seeks to be part of the United Kingdom’s 5G mobile network plans, according to a Financial Times report on Friday.
Huawei executives met with senior officials from Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), where they accepted a range of technical requirements to ease security fears, according to sources cited by the report.
The NCSC said in a statement that it was “committed to the security of UK networks, and we have a regular dialogue with Huawei about the criteria expected of their products.”
“The NCSC has concerns around a range of technical issues and has set out improvements the company must make,” it said.
Shenzhen-based Huawei, the world’s largest telecoms equipment supplier, has come under heightened scrutiny after its chief financial officer was arrested in Canada last Friday on a US extradition request, raising fears of an escalation in the trade war between China and the US.
Beijing called the arrest of Sabrina Meng Wanzhou, who is also the daughter of Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei, as a “despicable rogue’s approach” and part of a campaign to stymie China’s hi-tech ambitions.
Over the summer, Australia barred Huawei from providing 5G technology for wireless networks over espionage fears.
Embattled Chinese telecommunications giant Huawei Technologies has agreed to British intelligence demands to address risks in its equipment and software, as the company seeks to be part of the United Kingdom’s 5G mobile network plans, according to a Financial Times report on Friday.
China races ahead of West in pursuit of 5G
Standards and prices work in country’s favor as launch of new tech nears
TAKASHI KAWAKAMI, Nikkei staff writer
November 29, 2018
GUANGZHOU – As the advent of fifth-generation wireless technology approaches, Chinese companies look to leverage their technological and price advantages to come out on top, even as Washington works to shut them out of the U.S. and other markets.
At the World Internet Conference held in November in Wuzhen, Zhejiang Province, Xiaomi CEO Lei Jun said excitedly that this company hopes to announce a 5G-compatible smartphone next March or April.
With the smartphone market in a slump, Xiaomi is among the many Chinese companies pinning their hopes on 5G technology, which boasts transfer speeds up to 100 times faster than 4G. 2019 is expected to be the first year of the 5G era, with Huawei Technologies planning to roll out a 5G phone in June and ZTE aiming to do so between July and September.
These companies are keeping a close eye on the U.S., where rivals appear to be a step ahead. Motorola is slated to release a 5G-capable smartphone early next year in partnership with wireless carrier Verizon Communications, while South Korea’s LG Electronics and rival carrier Sprint plan to launch their own in the first half of the year.
This may appear as though China is playing catch-up, but the country enjoys advantages over the U.S. in certain key respects.
One is telecommunications infrastructure. As smartphone makers prepare 5G-compatible devices, wireless carriers are rushing to build the necessary networks. Chinese carriers plan a total of $400 billion in 5G-related investment over the five years through 2020.
China already has 350,000 5G cell sites, more than 10 times the U.S. total, according to Deloitte. The Asian country is expected to be the world’s largest 5G market in 2025 with 430 million subscribers — well over double the estimated U.S. figure.
Chinese players are also gaining momentum overseas. Huawei has shipped parts for more than 10,000 base stations in 66 countries. ZTE has partnered with Dutch carrier KPN on 5G testing, and is using ultralow prices to make inroads into European markets.
China’s choice of wireless technology has also given it an edge.
High-speed wireless transmission systems can be broadly divided into two types: TDD (time division duplex) and FDD (frequency division duplex). China has focused on developing TDD technology as a matter of national policy since the 3G era, while U.S. and European players have generally opted for FDD. The two perform much the same when it comes to 4G, but TDD is expected to be the main choice for 5G, as FDD cannot manage the necessary transfer speeds.
Washington is watching China’s advances with alarm, owing partly to worries about Chinese-built networks enabling large-scale spying by Beijing. The U.S. and Australia have both barred Chinese players from their 5G markets, citing security concerns, and Washington has recently begun pressing major allies to do the same.
But critics argue that this is not a realistic option. Countries that shut out Chinese companies and their know-how could find their own 5G infrastructure lagging behind.
This situation prompted a ZTE executive to declare recently that his company is years ahead of European competitors in terms of 5G technology.
“It will probably take American and European businesses more than a year to catch up with Chinese companies,” a former executive at a Japanese wireless carrier said.
Huawei Claims 2-Gig Speeds in London 5G Trial
Chinese tech company teams with British wireless operator Three UK for test using 100MHz C-Band spectrum
-Daniel Frankel, Nov 21, 2018
Chinese tech company Huawei said it has achieved 2 Gbps download speeds during 5G fixed wireless download trials being jointly conducted with British wireless operator Three UK. Huawei said the trials utilized the 100MHz C-Band spectrum and that speeds actually averaged around 1 Gbps over time. With cable operators vested in DOCSIS 3.1-powered HFC networks, the speed boast will undoubtedly raise interest. Verizon has deployed 5G fixed wireless in a number of U.S. markets, but speeds average around 300 Mbps, topping out at just under 1 Gbps. In the UK, Three recently committed to spending more than $2.5 billion to deliver 5G services. Network technology vendor Huawei, of course, faces steep hurdles in markets including Australia and the U.S.m which believe its products provide the means for Chinese operatives to conduct espionage.
“Huawei will continue to work with Three UK to bring customers more market-leading commercial applications of 5G,” Huawei 5G product line president Yang Chaobin said in a statement.
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